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As a Java professional, it is essential to know the right buzzwords, learn the right technologies and prepare the right answers to commonly asked Java Interview Questions. Here’s a definitive list of top Java Interview Questions that will guarantee a breeze-through to the next level.

In case you attended any Java interview recently, or have additional questions beyond what we covered, we encourage you to post them in our QnA Forum. Our expert team will get back to you at the earliest.  

So let’s get started with the first set of basic Java Interview Questions.

Basic Java Interview Questions

Q1. Explain JDK, JRE and JVM?

JDK vs JRE vs JVM

JDKJREJVM
It stands for Java Development Kit.It stands for Java Runtime Environment.It stands for Java Virtual Machine.
It is the tool necessary to compile, document and package Java programs.JRE refers to a runtime environment in which Java bytecode can be executed.It is an abstract machine. It is a specification that provides a run-time environment in which Java bytecode can be executed.
It contains JRE + development tools.It’s an implementation of the JVM which physically exists.JVM follows three notations: Specification, Implementation, and Runtime Instance.

Q2. Explain public static void main(String args[]) in Java.

main() in Java is the entry point for any Java program. It is always written as public static void main(String[] args).

  • public: Public is an access modifier, which is used to specify who can access this method. Public means that this Method will be accessible by any Class.
  • static: It is a keyword in java which identifies it is class-based. main() is made static in Java so that it can be accessed without creating the instance of a Class. In case, main is not made static then the compiler will throw an error as main() is called by the JVM before any objects are made and only static methods can be directly invoked via the class. 
  • void: It is the return type of the method. Void defines the method which will not return any value.
  • main: It is the name of the method which is searched by JVM as a starting point for an application with a particular signature only. It is the method where the main execution occurs.
  • String args[]: It is the parameter passed to the main method.

Q3. Why Java is platform independent?

Java is called platform independent because of its byte codes which can run on any system irrespective of its underlying operating system.

Q4. Why Java is not 100% Object-oriented?


Java is not 100% Object-oriented because it makes use of eight primitive data types such as boolean, byte, char, int, float, double, long, short which are not objects.

Q5. What are wrapper classes in Java?

Wrapper classes convert the Java primitives into the reference types (objects). Every primitive data type has a class dedicated to it. These are known as wrapper classes because they “wrap” the primitive data type into an object of that class. Refer to the below image which displays different primitive type, wrapper class and constructor argument.

Q6. What are constructors in Java?

In Java, constructor refers to a block of code which is used to initialize an object. It must have the same name as that of the class. Also, it has no return type and it is automatically called when an object is created.

There are two types of constructors:

  1. Default Constructor: In Java, a default constructor is the one which does not take any inputs. In other words, default constructors are the no argument constructors which will be created by default in case you no other constructor is defined by the user. Its main purpose is to initialize the instance variables with the default values. Also, it is majorly used for object creation. 
  2. Parameterized Constructor: The parameterized constructor in Java, is the constructor which is capable of initializing the instance variables with the provided values. In other words, the constructors which take the arguments are called parameterized constructors.

Q7. What is singleton class in Java and how can we make a class singleton?

Singleton class is a class whose only one instance can be created at any given time, in one JVM. A class can be made singleton by making its constructor private.

Q8. What is the difference between Array list and vector in Java?

ArrayListVector
Array List is not synchronized. Vector is synchronized.
Array List is fast as it’s non-synchronized.Vector is slow as it is thread safe.
If an element is inserted into the Array List, it increases its Array size by 50%.Vector defaults to doubling size of its array.
Array List does not define the increment size.Vector defines the increment size.
Array List can only use Iterator for traversing an Array List.Vector can use both Enumeration and Iterator for traversing.

Q9. What is the difference between equals() and == in Java?

Equals() method is defined in Object class in Java and used for checking equality of two objects defined by business logic.

“==” or equality operator in Java is a binary operator provided by Java programming language and used to compare primitives and objects. public boolean equals(Object o) is the method provided by the Object class. The default implementation uses == operator to compare two objects. For example: method can be overridden like String class. equals() method is used to compare the values of two objects.

Q10. What are the differences between Heap and Stack Memory in Java?

The major difference between Heap and Stack memory are:

FeaturesStackHeap
MemoryStack memory is used only by one thread of execution.Heap memory is used by all the parts of the application.
AccessStack memory can’t be accessed by other threads.Objects stored in the heap are globally accessible.
Memory ManagementFollows LIFO manner to free memory.Memory management is based on the generation associated with each object.
LifetimeExists until the end of execution of the thread.Heap memory lives from the start till the end of application execution.
UsageStack memory only contains local primitive and reference variables to objects in heap space.Whenever an object is created, it’s always stored in the Heap space.

Q11. What is a package in Java? List down various advantages of packages.

Packages in Java, are the collection of related classes and interfaces which are bundled together. By using packages, developers can easily modularize the code and optimize its reuse. Also, the code within the packages can be imported by other classes and reused. Below I have listed down a few of its advantages:

  • Packages help in avoiding name clashes
  • They provide easier access control on the code
  • Packages can also contain hidden classes which are not visible to the outer classes and only used within the package
  • Creates a proper hierarchical structure which makes it easier to locate the related classes

Q12. Why pointers are not used in Java?

Java doesn’t use pointers because they are unsafe and increases the complexity of the program. Since, Java is known for its simplicity of code, adding the concept of pointers will be contradicting. Moreover, since JVM is responsible for implicit memory allocation, thus in order to avoid direct access to memory by the user,  pointers are discouraged in Java.

Q13. What is JIT compiler in Java?

JIT stands for Just-In-Time compiler in Java. It is a program that helps in converting the Java bytecode into instructions that are sent directly to the processor. By default, the JIT compiler is enabled in Java and is activated whenever a Java method is invoked. The JIT compiler then compiles the bytecode of the invoked method into native machine code, compiling it “just in time” to execute. Once the method has been compiled, the JVM summons the compiled code of that method directly rather than interpreting it. This is why it is often responsible for the performance optimization of Java applications at the run time.

Q14. What are access modifiers in Java?

In Java, access modifiers are special keywords which are used to restrict the access of a class, constructor, data member and method in another class. Java supports four types of access modifiers:

  1. Default
  2. Private
  3. Protected
  4. Public
ModifierDefaultPrivateProtectedPublic
Same classYESYESYESYES
Same Package subclassYESNOYESYES
Same Package non-subclassYESNOYESYES
Different package subclassNONOYESYES
Different package non-subclassNONONOYES

Q15. Define a Java Class.

A class in Java is a blueprint which includes all your data.  A class contains fields (variables) and methods to describe the behavior of an object. Let’s have a look at the syntax of a class.

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class Abc {
member variables // class body
methods}

Q16. What is an object in Java and how is it created?

An object is a real-world entity that has a state and behavior. An object has three characteristics:

  1. State
  2. Behavior
  3. Identity

An object is created using the ‘new’ keyword. For example:

ClassName obj = new ClassName();

Q17. What is Object Oriented Programming?

Object-oriented programming or popularly known as OOPs is a programming model or approach where the programs are organized around objects rather than logic and functions. In other words, OOP mainly focuses on the objects that are required to be manipulated instead of logic. This approach is ideal for the programs large and complex codes and needs to be actively updated or maintained.

Q18. What are the main concepts of OOPs in Java?

Object-Oriented Programming or OOPs is a programming style that is associated with concepts like:

  1. Inheritance: Inheritance is a process where one class acquires the properties of another.
  2. Encapsulation: Encapsulation in Java is a mechanism of wrapping up the data and code together as a single unit.
  3. Abstraction: Abstraction is the methodology of hiding the implementation details from the user and only providing the functionality to the users. 
  4. Polymorphism: Polymorphism is the ability of a variable, function or object to take multiple forms.

Q19. What is the difference between a local variable and an instance variable?

In Java, a local variable is typically used inside a method, constructor, or a block and has only local scope. Thus, this variable can be used only within the scope of a block. The best benefit of having a local variable is that other methods in the class won’t be even aware of that variable.

Example

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if(x > 100)
{
String test = "Edureka";
}

 

Whereas, an instance variable in Java, is a variable which is bounded to its object itself. These variables are declared within a class, but outside a method. Every object of that class will create it’s own copy of the variable while using it. Thus, any changes made to the variable won’t reflect in any other instances of that class and will be bound to that particular instance only.

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class Test{
public String EmpName;
public int empAge;
}

Q20. Differentiate between the constructors and methods in Java?

MethodsConstructors
1. Used to represent the behavior of an object1. Used to initialize the state of an object
2. Must have a return type2. Do not have any return type
3. Needs to be invoked explicitly3. Is invoked implicitly
4. No default method is provided by the compiler4. A default constructor is provided by the compiler if the class has none
5. Method name may or may not be same as class name5. Constructor name must always be the same as the class name

In case you are facing any challenges with these Java interview questions, please comment on your problems in the section below.

Q21. What is final keyword in Java?

final is a special keyword in Java that is used as a non-access modifier. A final variable can be used in different contexts such as:

  • final variable

When the final keyword is used with a variable then its value can’t be changed once assigned. In case the no value has been assigned to the final variable then using only the class constructor a value can be assigned to it.

  • final method

When a method is declared final then it can’t be overridden by the inheriting class.

  • final class

When a class is declared as final in Java, it can’t be extended by any subclass class but it can extend other class.

Q22. What is the difference between break and continue statements?

breakcontinue
1. Can be used in switch and loop (for, while, do while) statements1. Can be only used with loop statements
2. It causes the switch or loop statements to terminate the moment it is executed2. It doesn’t terminate the loop but causes the loop to jump to the next iteration
3. It terminates the innermost enclosing loop or switch immediately3. A continue within a loop nested with a switch will cause the next loop iteration to execute
Example break:
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for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++)
{
if (i == 3)
{
break;
}
System.out.println(i);
}
Example continue:
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for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++)
{
if(i == 2)
{
continue;
}
System.out.println(i);
}

Q23.What is an infinite loop in Java? Explain with an example.

An infinite loop is an instruction sequence in Java that loops endlessly when a functional exit isn’t met. This type of loop can be the result of a programming error or may also be a deliberate action based on the application behavior. An infinite loop will terminate automatically once the application exits.

For example:

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public class InfiniteForLoopDemo
{
public static void main(String[] arg) {
for(;;)
System.out.println("Welcome to Edureka!");
// To terminate this program press ctrl + c in the console.
}
}

 

Q24. What is the difference between this() and super() in Java?

In Java, super() and this(), both are special keywords that are used to call the constructor. 

this()super()
1. this() represents the current instance of a class1. super() represents the current instance of a parent/base class
2. Used to call the default constructor of the same class2. Used to call the default constructor of the parent/base class
3. Used to access methods of the current class3. Used to access methods of the base class
4.  Used for pointing the current class instance4. Used for pointing the superclass instance
5. Must be the first line of a block5. Must be the first line of a block

Q25. What is Java String Pool?

Java String pool refers to a collection of Strings which are stored in heap memory. In this, whenever a new object is created, String pool first checks whether the object is already present in the pool or not. If it is present, then the same reference is returned to the variable else new object will be created in the String pool and the respective reference will be returned.

String pool - Java Interview Questions - Edureka

Q26. Differentiate between static and non-static methods in Java.

Static MethodNon-Static Method
1. The static keyword must be used before the method name1. No need to use the static keyword before the method name
2. It is called using the class (className.methodName) 2. It is can be called like any general method
3. They can’t access any non-static instance variables or methods3. It can access any static method and any static variable without creating an instance of the class

Q27. What is constructor chaining in Java?

In Java, constructor chaining is the process of calling one constructor from another with respect to the current object. Constructor chaining is possible only through legacy where a subclass constructor is responsible for invoking the superclass’ constructor first. There could be any number of classes in the constructor chain. Constructor chaining can be achieved in two ways:

  1. Within the same class using this()
  2. From base class using super()

Q28. Difference between String, StringBuilder, and StringBuffer.

FactorStringStringBuilderStringBuffer
Storage AreaConstant String PoolHeap AreaHeap Area
MutabilityImmutableMutableMutable
Thread SafetyYesNoYes
PerformanceFastMore efficientLess efficient
If you think this article on Java Interview Questions is helpful, you can check out Edureka’s Java Training in Chennai as well.

Q29. What is a classloader in Java?

The Java ClassLoader is a subset of JVM (Java Virtual Machine) that is responsible for loading the class files. Whenever a Java program is executed it is first loaded by the classloader. Java provides three built-in classloaders:

  1. Bootstrap ClassLoader
  2. Extension ClassLoader
  3. System/Application ClassLoader

Q30. Why Java Strings are immutable in nature?

In Java, string objects are immutable in nature which simply means once the String object is created its state cannot be modified. Whenever you try to update the value of that object instead of updating the values of that particular object, Java creates a new string object. Java String objects are immutable as String objects are generally cached in the String pool. Since String literals are usually shared between multiple clients, action from one client might affect the rest. It enhances security, caching, synchronization, and performance of the application. 

Q31. What is the difference between an array and an array list?

ArrayArrayList
Cannot contain values of different data typesCan contain values of different data types.
Size must be defined at the time of declarationSize can be dynamically changed
Need to specify the index in order to add dataNo need to specify the index
Arrays are not type parameterizedArraylists are type 
Arrays can contain primitive data types as well as objectsArraylists can contain only objects, no primitive data types are allowed

Q32. What is a Map in Java?

In Java, Map is an interface of Util package which maps unique keys to values. The Map interface is not a subset of the main Collection interface and thus it behaves little different from the other collection types. Below are a few of the characteristics of Map interface: 

  1. Map doesn’t contain duplicate keys.
  2. Each key can map at max one value.

Q33. What is collection class in Java? List down its methods and interfaces.

In Java, the collection is a framework that acts as an architecture for storing and manipulating a group of objects. Using Collections you can perform various tasks like searching, sorting, insertion, manipulation, deletion, etc. Java collection framework includes the following:

  • Interfaces
  • Classes
  • Methods

The below image shows the complete hierarchy of the Java Collection.

FrameworkHierarchy - Java Collections - Edureka

 

In case you are facing any challenges with these java interview questions, please comment on your problems in the section below.

OOPS Java Interview Questions

Q1. What is Polymorphism?

Polymorphism is briefly described as “one interface, many implementations”. Polymorphism is a characteristic of being able to assign a different meaning or usage to something in different contexts – specifically, to allow an entity such as a variable, a function, or an object to have more than one form. There are two types of polymorphism:

  1. Compile time polymorphism
  2. Run time polymorphism

Compile time polymorphism is method overloading whereas Runtime time polymorphism is done using inheritance and interface.

Q2. What is runtime polymorphism or dynamic method dispatch?

In Java, runtime polymorphism or dynamic method dispatch is a process in which a call to an overridden method is resolved at runtime rather than at compile-time. In this process, an overridden method is called through the reference variable of a superclass. Let’s take a look at the example below to understand it better.

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class Car {
void run()
{
System.out.println(“car is running”);
}
}
class Audi extends Car {
void run()
{
System.out.prinltn(“Audi is running safely with 100km”);
}
public static void main(String args[])
{
Car b= new Audi();    //upcasting
b.run();
}
}

Q3. What is abstraction in Java?

Abstraction refers to the quality of dealing with ideas rather than events. It basically deals with hiding the details and showing the essential things to the user. Thus you can say that abstraction in Java is the process of hiding the implementation details from the user and revealing only the functionality to them. Abstraction can be achieved in two ways:

  1. Abstract Classes (0-100% of abstraction can be achieved)
  2. Interfaces (100% of abstraction can be achieved)

Q4. What do you mean by an interface in Java?

An interface in Java is a blueprint of a class or you can say it is a collection of abstract methods and static constants. In an interface, each method is public and abstract but it does not contain any constructor. Thus, interface basically is a group of related methods with empty bodies. Example:

public interface Animal {
  public void eat();
  public void sleep();
  public void run();
}

Q5. What is the difference between abstract classes and interfaces?

Abstract ClassInterfaces
An abstract class can provide complete, default code and/or just the details that have to be overriddenAn interface cannot provide any code at all, just the signature
In the case of an abstract class, a class may extend only one abstract classA Class may implement several interfaces
An abstract class can have non-abstract methodsAll methods of an Interface are abstract
An abstract class can have instance variablesAn Interface cannot have instance variables
An abstract class can have any visibility: public, private, protectedAn Interface visibility must be public (or) none
If we add a new method to an abstract class then we have the option of providing default implementation and therefore all the existing code might work properlyIf we add a new method to an Interface then we have to track down all the implementations of the interface and define implementation for the new method
An abstract class can contain constructorsAn Interface cannot contain constructors
Abstract classes are fastInterfaces are slow as it requires extra indirection to find the corresponding method in the actual class

Q6. What is inheritance in Java?

Inheritance in Java is the concept where the properties of one class can be inherited by the other. It helps to reuse the code and establish a relationship between different classes. Inheritance is performed between two types of classes:

  1. Parent class (Super or Base class)
  2. Child class (Subclass or Derived class)

A class which inherits the properties is known as Child Class whereas a class whose properties are inherited is known as Parent class.

Q7. What are the different types of inheritance in Java?

Java supports four types of inheritance which are:

  1. Single Inheritance: In single inheritance, one class inherits the properties of another i.e there will be only one parent as well as one child class.
  2. Multilevel Inheritance: When a class is derived from a class which is also derived from another class, i.e. a class having more than one parent class but at different levels, such type of inheritance is called Multilevel Inheritance.
  3. Hierarchical Inheritance: When a class has more than one child classes (subclasses) or in other words, more than one child classes have the same parent class, then such kind of inheritance is known as hierarchical.
  4. Hybrid Inheritance: Hybrid inheritance is a combination of two or more types of inheritance.

Q8. What is method overloading and method overriding?

Method Overloading :

  • In Method Overloading, Methods of the same class shares the same name but each method must have a different number of parameters or parameters having different types and order.
  • Method Overloading is to “add” or “extend” more to the method’s behavior.
  • It is a compile-time polymorphism.
  • The methods must have a different signature.
  • It may or may not need inheritance in Method Overloading.

Let’s take a look at the example below to understand it better.

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class Adder {
Static int add(int a, int b)
{
return a+b;
}
Static double add( double a, double b)
{
return a+b;
}
public static void main(String args[])
{
System.out.println(Adder.add(11,11));
System.out.println(Adder.add(12.3,12.6));
}}

Method Overriding:  

  • In Method Overriding, the subclass has the same method with the same name and exactly the same number and type of parameters and same return type as a superclass.
  • Method Overriding is to “Change” existing behavior of the method.
  • It is a run time polymorphism.
  • The methods must have the same signature.
  • It always requires inheritance in Method Overriding.

Let’s take a look at the example below to understand it better.

Course Curriculum

Java Certification Training Course

  • Instructor-led Sessions
  • Real-life Case Studies
  • Assignments
  • Lifetime Access
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class Car {
void run(){
System.out.println(“car is running”);
}
Class Audi extends Car{
void run()
{
System.out.prinltn("Audi is running safely with 100km");
}
public static void main( String args[])
{
Car b=new Audi();
b.run();
}
}

Q9. Can you override a private or static method in Java?

You cannot override a private or static method in Java. If you create a similar method with the same return type and same method arguments in child class then it will hide the superclass method; this is known as method hiding. Similarly, you cannot override a private method in subclass because it’s not accessible there. What you can do is create another private method with the same name in the child class. Let’s take a look at the example below to understand it better.

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class Base {
private static void display() {
System.out.println("Static or class method from Base");
}
public void print() {
System.out.println("Non-static or instance method from Base");
}
class Derived extends Base {
private static void display() {
System.out.println("Static or class method from Derived");
}
public void print() {
System.out.println("Non-static or instance method from Derived");
}
public class test {
public static void main(String args[])
{
Base obj= new Derived();
obj1.display();
obj1.print();
}
}

Q10. What is multiple inheritance? Is it supported by Java?

MultipleInheritance - Java Interview Questions - EdurekaIf a child class inherits the property from multiple classes is known as multiple inheritance. Java does not allow to extend multiple classes.

The problem with multiple inheritance is that if multiple parent classes have the same method name, then at runtime it becomes difficult for the compiler to decide which method to execute from the child class.

Therefore, Java doesn’t support multiple inheritance. The problem is commonly referred to as Diamond Problem.

In case you are facing any challenges with these java interview questions, please comment on your problems in the section below.

Q11. What is encapsulation in Java?

Encapsulation is a mechanism where you bind your data(variables) and code(methods) together as a single unit. Here, the data is hidden from the outer world and can be accessed only via current class methods. This helps in protecting the data from any unnecessary modification. We can achieve encapsulation in Java by:

  • Declaring the variables of a class as private.
  • Providing public setter and getter methods to modify and view the values of the variables.

Q12. What is an association?

Association is a relationship where all object have their own lifecycle and there is no owner. Let’s take the example of Teacher and Student. Multiple students can associate with a single teacher and a single student can associate with multiple teachers but there is no ownership between the objects and both have their own lifecycle. These relationships can be one to one, one to many, many to one and many to many.

Q13. What do you mean by aggregation?

An aggregation is a specialized form of Association where all object has their own lifecycle but there is ownership and child object can not belong to another parent object. Let’s take an example of Department and teacher. A single teacher can not belong to multiple departments, but if we delete the department teacher object will not destroy. 

Q14. What is composition in Java?

Composition is again a specialized form of Aggregation and we can call this as a “death” relationship. It is a strong type of Aggregation. Child object does not have their lifecycle and if parent object deletes all child object will also be deleted. Let’s take again an example of a relationship between House and rooms. House can contain multiple rooms there is no independent life of room and any room can not belongs to two different houses if we delete the house room will automatically delete.

Q15. What is a marker interface?

A Marker interface can be defined as the interface having no data member and member functions. In simpler terms, an empty interface is called the Marker interface. The most common examples of Marker interface in Java are Serializable, Cloneable etc. The marker interface can be declared as follows.

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public interface Serializable{
}

Q16. What is object cloning in Java?

Object cloning in Java is the process of creating an exact copy of an object. It basically means the ability to create an object with a similar state as the original object. To achieve this, Java provides a method clone() to make use of this functionality. This method creates a new instance of the class of the current object and then initializes all its fields with the exact same contents of corresponding fields. To object clone(), the marker interface java.lang.Cloneable must be implemented to avoid any runtime exceptions. One thing you must note is Object clone() is a protected method, thus you need to override it.

Q17. What is a copy constructor in Java?

Copy constructor is a member function that is used to initialize an object using another object of the same class. Though there is no need for copy constructor in Java since all objects are passed by reference. Moreover, Java does not even support automatic pass-by-value.

Q18. What is a constructor overloading in Java?

In Java, constructor overloading is a technique of adding any number of constructors to a class each having a different parameter list. The compiler uses the number of parameters and their types in the list to differentiate the overloaded constructors.

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class Demo
{
int i;
public Demo(int a)
{
i=k;
}
public Demo(int a, int b)
{
//body
}
}

In case you are facing any challenges with these java interview questions, please comment on your problems in the section below. Apart from this Java Interview Questions Blog, if you want to get trained from professionals on this technology, you can opt for a structured training from edureka!

Servlets – Java Interview Questions  

Q1. What is a servlet?

  • Java Servlet is server-side technologies to extend the capability of web servers by providing support for dynamic response and data persistence.
  • The javax.servlet and javax.servlet.http packages provide interfaces and classes for writing our own servlets.
  • All servlets must implement the javax.servlet.Servlet interface, which defines servlet lifecycle methods. When implementing a generic service, we can extend the GenericServlet class provided with the Java Servlet API. The HttpServlet class provides methods, such as doGet() and doPost(), for handling HTTP-specific services.
  • Most of the times, web applications are accessed using HTTP protocol and thats why we mostly extend HttpServlet class. Servlet API hierarchy is shown in below image.

Servlet - Java Interview Questions - Edureka

Q2. What are the differences between Get and Post methods?

GetPost
Limited amount of data can be sent because data is sent in header.Large amount of data can be sent because data is sent in body.
 Not Secured because data is exposed in URL bar. Secured because data is not exposed in URL bar.
 Can be bookmarked Cannot be bookmarked
 Idempotent Non-Idempotent
 It is more efficient and used than Post It is less efficient and used

Q3. What is Request Dispatcher?

RequestDispatcher interface is used to forward the request to another resource that can be HTML, JSP or another servlet in same application. We can also use this to include the content of another resource to the response.

There are two methods defined in this interface:

1.void forward()

2.void include()

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